名山| 格尔木| 承德市| 五寨| 江华| 定襄| 邛崃| 武功| 丽江| 兖州| 讷河| 招远| 辰溪| 楚州| 威宁| 进贤| 乌兰浩特| 珊瑚岛| 突泉| 错那| 开江| 莎车| 遂昌| 瑞昌| 罗源| 达孜| 鹤庆| 大悟| 松潘| 阿勒泰| 攸县| 聂荣| 湄潭| 丹阳| 吐鲁番| 新野| 阳春| 万山| 太仓| 砀山| 乌拉特中旗| 宾县| 沈阳| 长治县| 尚志| 张家川| 华宁| 罗甸| 隆尧| 鲁山| 诏安| 满城| 涿鹿| 洛南| 衢州| 北碚| 富宁| 永春| 张掖| 禄劝| 仁寿| 兴山| 吐鲁番| 富顺| 饶河| 施甸| 龙胜| 禹州| 丽水| 颍上| 攸县| 永福| 石门| 辽阳市| 沂水| 顺义| 无极| 屏东| 固原| 滦南| 双城| 长白| 郏县| 赞皇| 昌宁| 文登| 新野| 黑龙江| 天池| 竹溪| 阿拉善左旗| 禄劝| 绥德| 桦川| 凤翔| 凤庆| 兴化| 石景山| 大足| 庆安| 万山| 盘锦| 保康| 五通桥| 南木林| 南皮| 正安| 合阳| 明溪| 屏南| 同安| 溆浦| 姚安| 肇州| 青白江| 濮阳| 湖北| 株洲县| 景德镇| 利辛| 余庆| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 无为| 大兴| 喀什| 曲江| 祁县| 岳阳县| 宜君| 星子| 沙圪堵| 南海| 永新| 珙县| 涞水| 驻马店| 青神| 歙县| 林周| 三台| 南沙岛| 琼海| 宣城| 湘乡| 凌云| 丹棱| 若尔盖| 抚松| 罗甸| 聂荣| 上杭| 祁东| 鹤山| 河池| 沧源| 榆林| 庆元| 陈仓| 文昌| 汾西| 彭水| 尤溪| 郑州| 从化| 罗甸| 千阳| 松滋| 普安| 玉门| 台州| 赤水| 兴文| 彭水| 常宁| 宁波| 衢江| 南康| 西丰| 八达岭| 崇礼| 元氏| 正蓝旗| 五原| 济源| 乌恰| 集安| 同江| 洛扎| 治多| 靖江| 滦南| 青冈| 讷河| 米脂| 林口| 达坂城| 丰城| 讷河| 宣化区| 平原| 通海| 辽源| 黔西| 通山| 乌伊岭| 安图| 青海| 河津| 新荣| 宁乡| 富阳| 余江| 蓬安| 于都| 雷波| 宣威| 枣阳| 承德县| 呼和浩特| 宁明| 金湾| 广元| 白城| 肃宁| 沧县| 嘉禾| 龙井| 叶县| 阜宁| 南安| 滑县| 常德| 岗巴| 嘉祥| 会理| 大龙山镇| 扶风| 新津| 美溪| 长岛| 惠来| 绥滨| 蓟县| 平定| 乌拉特前旗| 桃园| 滦平| 甘泉| 高邮| 八达岭| 泽州| 零陵| 绥江| 禄劝| 渝北| 云龙| 安溪| 泾阳| 涿州| 太白| 广南| 沙河| 宁国|

张永霞:加强环境保护是政治任务,也是民生工程

2019-05-24 02:19 来源:人民经济网

  张永霞:加强环境保护是政治任务,也是民生工程

  ,ChineseMinistryofForeignAffairs(MOFA),MOFAadded."JustasVicePremierLiuHesaid…thebiggestoutcomeandconsensusreachedbythetwosideswasthatbothrealizedbilateraltradeissuesmustberesolvedthroughnegotiationstoavoidthemutualtariffsimposedagainsteachother,"saidMOFAspokesmanLuKang."Overthepast40years,thefundamentalreasonwhybothsidescanmanagetheirdisputesandpromotethecontinuousdevelopmentofbilateraleconomicandtraderelations,isthatitisinthecommoninterestofthetwocountriesandthetwopeoples,",  截至2009年6月底,境内联网商户达135万户,联网POS机具达211万台,联网ATM机达18万台,分别是银联成立前2001年的9倍、倍和倍,一个规模化的银行卡受理网络在我国已经形成。

ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.在中国银联与各家商业银行共同努力下,我国银行卡的联网通用不断深化,银联网络不仅在东部地区和大中城市日益普及,更进一步加速向中西部地区、中小城市和广大农村地区延伸。

  Thisyearhasseen10newcompaniesfromChina,includingthetwotechgiantsAlibabaandTencent,srankingandtheothernewChinesecompaniesareAnbangInsuranceGroup,HengliGroup,YangoFinancialHolding,CountryGardenHoldings,SuningCommerceGroup,XiamenCD,XiamenITGHoldingGroup,ndedonorbeforeMarch31,,andcomparisonsarewiththeprioryearsfiguresasoriginallyreportedforthatyear,slargestFortune500companiesfor2017,coveringawiderangeoffieldsincludingenergy,oilrefining,miningcompanies,reasedforthe14thconsecutiveyear.  PoliticalsympathyfromEuropewithIransnucleardealis"notenough"andtheyshouldtakemore"practicalsteps"toguaranteeIranseconomicinterestsfromthedeal,IranianForeignMinisterMohammadJavadZarifsaidonSunday."WiththeexitoftheUnitedStatesfromthenuclearagreement,expectationsfromthetheEuropeanUnion(EU)topreservetheachievementsofthedealarehigh,"ZarifmadetheremarksinameetingwiththevisitingEUsEnergyChiefMiguelAriasCanete."Underthecurrentcircumstances,politicalsupportofEuropetothenukedealisnotsufficient,"Zarifsaid."EUshouldtakefurtherpracticalstepstocontinueeconomiccooperationwithIran,"hesaid,addingthat"EUshouldboostinvestmentsinIran."HeexpresseddoubtthatEuropescommitmenttoimplementingthedeal,knownasJointComprehensivePlanofAction(JCPOA),isincontradictionwiththewithdrawalofmajorEuropeancompaniesfromIran,,cooperationbetweenEuropeancompaniesandtheIslamicrepublic,,however,theEUsmessageistoprotecttheaccordanditsimplementation,,firstViceSpeakeroftheIranianParliamentAliMotahharisaidthatIraniangovernmentissatisfiedwiththerecenttalkswithitsEuropeanpartnersoverpreservingthenucleardealandsecuringIransforeignministerandhisnegotiationteamexpressedtheirsatisfactiononSunday,butsaidthat"everythingdependsontheresultsofthetalksinthenextweeks,",whereZarifbriefedthelawmakersontheongoingtalkswithFrance,Germany,BritainandtheEUForei"ThestepsthattheEuropeanshavetakeninthisregardsofarareacceptable,",HeadoftheAtomicEnergyOrganizationofIran(AEOI)AliAkbarSalehiurgedtheEuropeancountsinterests,whiseffortstosavethenuclearcontractshowthatthedealisaveryimportantagreementfortheregionandtheworld,,iftheEuropeansfailtoundertaketheirobligations,Iranhastopressaheadwithitspeacefulnucleardevelopmentwithfulldetermination,,,oncemore,provedtotheworldthatWashingtonisnotreliableinundertakingitsinternationalresponsibilities,,butitwillnotcauseseriousones,,Canetestressedthatpgreement,theEuropeanswillremaincommittedtoit,Canetesaid,,IransPetroleumMinisterBijanNamdarZanganehsaidonSaturdaythatIransoilexportswillnotbeaffectediftheEUrefrainsfromfollowingtheUnitedStatesinimposingneweconomicpressuresontheIslamicrepublic."soilexportsifEUcouldsalvagethedeal,"rupcomingdecisiontosecurememberssnucleardealandvowedtore-imposesanctions,includingoilembargo,"wewillhavetoaskfor(sanction)waivers,forcarve-outsforthe(European)companiesthatmakeinvestments."Besides,SalehisaidthathediscussedreapplyingEuropeanlawof"theblockingstatute""theblockingstatute"whichisa1996regulationthatprohibitsEUcompaniesandcourtsfromcomplyingwithforeignsanctionslawsandstipulates  

ItisoftensaidthattheUnitedStatesexperiencestradedeficitsinpartbecauseoflowwagesabroadandbecauseforeigngovernmentsunfairlysubsidizecertainindustries,therebycreatingan"unlevelplayingfield".scurrentaccountisdefinedasthesumof:(a)thebalanceoftradeinmerchandiseandservices;(b)netfactorincome(whatAmericanworkers,firmsandinvestorsearnabroadminuswhatforeignworkers,);and(c)netinternationaltransferpayments(,includingforeignaid).Inrecentyears,item(b)hasbeenasmallpositive(about$50billionperyear)anditem(c)hasbeennegativeofabitmorethan$,items(b)and(c)tendtooffseteachother,,inturn,hasexistedbecauselargemerchandisetradedeficitsareonlypartiaountryequalstotalincomeinthatcountry,calledgrossnationalincome(GNI)minustotalexpenditureinthatcountry,grossnationalexpenditure(GNE).Conceptually,acurrentac,itshedslightonthemistakenideathatimporttariffsand/orinducingforeigngovernmentsto"playfair"$40,000peryearaftertaxes,butyouspend$50,,youhaveabudgetdeficitof$10,ngthanyourincomeallows—tores,butnotonproductsfromotherstores,,ifyouweredeterminedtomaintainyour"highlivingstyle"afterthehighsalestaxeswerelevied,thenyouwouldhavetospendmorethanever,,(includinghouseholds,firmsandgovernmentsatalllevels),,,,historicallytheJapanesehavesavedmorethan20percentoftheirincomes,,totaloutlays(governmentpurchasesplustransferpayments),Americanswantthefederalg,,ifhouseholdssavedsignificantlymore,thiscouldoffsetthegovernmentbudgetradeandcurrentaccountdeficitsbyperhapsimposinghightariffsonimportsfromafewcountries(suchasMexicoandChina)isequivalenttotry!,inpart,becauseforeigngovernmentsunfairlyhelptheirfirms,therebyenablingthemtosellatrelativelylowpricesTotheextentthatunfaircompetitionexists,thisharmsth,,thiswouldincreasethepricesAmericanspayforsomeimports,:"Well…nowthatimportsaremoreexpensive,,letsvoteforpoliticianswhowillspendlessandtaxusmore!"Alogicalquestionis"/oralevelplayingfieldmakeimportsmoreexpensive,thenwhywontthetradedeficitgetsmaller"Theansweristhatimportswillimproveinitially,,inturn,will(a)partiallyoffsetanincreaseinimportpricesfromtariffsand(b)(Ifittakesmoreyuan,yenoreurostobuyonedollar,)Theoverallneteffectofhigherimporttariffsandtheappreciationofthedollarwillbefewerimports,,!:(a)getAmericanstosaveahigherpercentageoftheirincomesand/or(b),Ohio.  

  Thisyearhasseen10newcompaniesfromChina,includingthetwotechgiantsAlibabaandTencent,srankingandtheothernewChinesecompaniesareAnbangInsuranceGroup,HengliGroup,YangoFinancialHolding,CountryGardenHoldings,SuningCommerceGroup,XiamenCD,XiamenITGHoldingGroup,ndedonorbeforeMarch31,,andcomparisonsarewiththeprioryearsfiguresasoriginallyreportedforthatyear,slargestFortune500companiesfor2017,coveringawiderangeoffieldsincludingenergy,oilrefining,miningcompanies,reasedforthe14thconsecutiveyear.  

  ChinesescientistshaveidentifiedthesecretofbatsthatharborhighlypathogenicviruseslikeEbola,,scientistsattheWuhanInstituteofVirologyinChinafindthatinbats,anantiviralimmunepathwaycalledtheSTING-interferonpathwayisdampened,sobatscanmaintainjustenoughdefenseagainstillnesswithouttriggeringaheightenedimmunereaction."Webelievethereisabalancebetweenbatsandthepathogenstheycarry,"saidthepapersseniorauthorZhouPeng."Thisworkdemonstratedthatinordertomaintainabalancewithviruses,batsmayhaveevolvedtodampencertainpathways,",inhumansandothermammals,animmune-basedover-respo,inhumans,anactivatedSTINGpathwayislinkedwithsevereautoimmunediseases."Inhumanhistory,wehavebeenchasinginfectiousdiseasesoneafteranother,"saidZhou,"Butbatsappeartobeasuper-mammaltothesedeadlyviruses."ByidentifyingaweakenedbutnotdefunctSTINGpathwayinbats,researchershavesomenewinsightintohowbatsfine-tuneantiviraldefensestobalanceaneffective,butnotanovert,connectedfeaturesofbatbiology:theyareflyingmammals,havealonglifespan,andhostalargeviralreservoir."AdaptationtoflightlikelycausedpositiveselectionofmultiplebatinnateimmuneandDNAdamagerepairgenes,"TING,interfeearnfrombatsincombatingvirusalthoughwhetherthismechanismcanbedirectlyusedinhumansisstillunknown.  OneofthesurvivorsofthetragicplanecrashinCubadiedMondayafternoonduetocomplications,,a23-year-oldcollegestudent,passedawayfollowingseriousneurologicaltraumas,saidCuba,LandrovewashospitalizedattheintensivecareunitofHavanasCalixtoGarciaHospital."Atthemomentofherdeath,GrettelLandrovewasinextremecriticalcondition,whichwasntpossibletorevertdespitetheeffortofthemultidisciplinarymedicalteaminchargeofher,",CarlosAlbertoMartinez,headofthemedicalteam,saidLandrovesprognosiswasunfavorablebecauseshehadtobeoperatedforaninjuryinsidethebraintissue,MailenDiaz,19,andEmileySanchez,39,,,leasedbyCubanadeAviacionfromoftheMexicancompanyDamojh,crashedFridayshortlyaftertakeofffromJoseMartiInternationalAirportinHavanawith113peopleonboard.  

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.

  支付宝直接付款流程:进入订单页面选择支付宝付款点击去支付宝付款选择直接付款选择支付银行并输入Email输入银行卡信息确认完成。AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)

  支付宝直接付款流程:进入订单页面选择支付宝付款点击去支付宝付款选择直接付款选择支付银行并输入Email输入银行卡信息确认完成。

  随着联网通用的不断深化和国内银行卡受理环境的不断改善,银行卡交易额呈现快速递进增长。

  目前已和国内工商银行、农业银行建设银行、招商银行、上海浦发银行等各大商业银行以及中国邮政、VISA国际组织等各大机构建立了战略合作,成为金融机构在网上支付领域极为信任的合作伙伴,支付宝现已有超过1亿的会员用户。银联支付流程:进入订单页面选择银联完成订单选择银行卡付款选择支付银行输入银行卡信息确认完成。

  

  张永霞:加强环境保护是政治任务,也是民生工程

 
责编:

棕榈油能不能吃?食药监局给出权威解析

ItisoftensaidthattheUnitedStatesexperiencestradedeficitsinpartbecauseoflowwagesabroadandbecauseforeigngovernmentsunfairlysubsidizecertainindustries,therebycreatingan"unlevelplayingfield".scurrentaccountisdefinedasthesumof:(a)thebalanceoftradeinmerchandiseandservices;(b)netfactorincome(whatAmericanworkers,firmsandinvestorsearnabroadminuswhatforeignworkers,);and(c)netinternationaltransferpayments(,includingforeignaid).Inrecentyears,item(b)hasbeenasmallpositive(about$50billionperyear)anditem(c)hasbeennegativeofabitmorethan$,items(b)and(c)tendtooffseteachother,,inturn,hasexistedbecauselargemerchandisetradedeficitsareonlypartiaountryequalstotalincomeinthatcountry,calledgrossnationalincome(GNI)minustotalexpenditureinthatcountry,grossnationalexpenditure(GNE).Conceptually,acurrentac,itshedslightonthemistakenideathatimporttariffsand/orinducingforeigngovernmentsto"playfair"$40,000peryearaftertaxes,butyouspend$50,,youhaveabudgetdeficitof$10,ngthanyourincomeallows—tores,butnotonproductsfromotherstores,,ifyouweredeterminedtomaintainyour"highlivingstyle"afterthehighsalestaxeswerelevied,thenyouwouldhavetospendmorethanever,,(includinghouseholds,firmsandgovernmentsatalllevels),,,,historicallytheJapanesehavesavedmorethan20percentoftheirincomes,,totaloutlays(governmentpurchasesplustransferpayments),Americanswantthefederalg,,ifhouseholdssavedsignificantlymore,thiscouldoffsetthegovernmentbudgetradeandcurrentaccountdeficitsbyperhapsimposinghightariffsonimportsfromafewcountries(suchasMexicoandChina)isequivalenttotry!,inpart,becauseforeigngovernmentsunfairlyhelptheirfirms,therebyenablingthemtosellatrelativelylowpricesTotheextentthatunfaircompetitionexists,thisharmsth,,thiswouldincreasethepricesAmericanspayforsomeimports,:"Well…nowthatimportsaremoreexpensive,,letsvoteforpoliticianswhowillspendlessandtaxusmore!"Alogicalquestionis"/oralevelplayingfieldmakeimportsmoreexpensive,thenwhywontthetradedeficitgetsmaller"Theansweristhatimportswillimproveinitially,,inturn,will(a)partiallyoffsetanincreaseinimportpricesfromtariffsand(b)(Ifittakesmoreyuan,yenoreurostobuyonedollar,)Theoverallneteffectofhigherimporttariffsandtheappreciationofthedollarwillbefewerimports,,!:(a)getAmericanstosaveahigherpercentageoftheirincomesand/or(b),Ohio.  

2019-05-24 15:03:31  来源: 南方日报  作者:

我要分享:

摘要:

近期有相关机构的研究报告指出,在200℃以上高温精炼过程中,棕榈油比其他植物油会产生更多的氯丙醇酯、缩水甘油酯。随后,一些媒体关于食品中氯丙醇酯、缩水甘油酯毒性的报道引起了消费者的关注。日前,国家食品药品监督管理总局发布2017年第2期《食品安全风险解析》,组织有关专家解读。

国际并无两种物质限量标准

总局指出,目前关于3-氯丙醇酯和缩水甘油酯毒理学研究尚不系统。香港食品安全中心依据饼干、植物油、糕点等食品中3-氯丙醇酯的含量对人群暴露量进行评估,结果认为通过上述食品摄入的3-氯丙醇酯对健康的风险不需要特别关注。

德国风险评估研究所对欧洲人群经植物油摄入缩水甘油酯的风险进行了评估,认为一般人群经植物油摄入的缩水甘油酯对健康不存在安全风险。

我国目前公开发表的研究资料也认为,一般人群在通过植物油等食品摄入的缩水甘油酯对人体健康造成危害的风险较低。

针对3-氯丙醇酯可能在体内水解为3-氯丙醇,2012年联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)/世界卫生组织(WHO)食品添加剂联合专家委员会(JECFA)制定了3-氯丙醇暂定每日最大耐受量(PMTDI)为每公斤体重2μg/kg。但尚未制定3-氯丙醇酯和缩水甘油酯的相应限量标准。

优化精炼工艺可减少含量

研究表明,3-氯丙醇酯在油脂加工原料和未精炼的植物油中含量极低,而植物油精炼后含量显著增加,其含量水平与毛油的原料种类有关,相比玉米油、菜籽油、大豆油,以果肉为原料的植物油如棕榈油更容易产生3-氯丙醇酯。优化生产工艺可以降低和控制植物油精炼过程中3-氯丙醇酯和缩水甘油酯的产生。

因此,专家建议:一是加强分析研究,为这两种物质是否需要制定限量标准提供科学依据。二是针对不同油脂原料特点,比如有些油适合冷榨,有些适合热加工,建立不同的加工方式。适度加工,减少有害物质的形成,避免各种风险因子的过量形成。三是消费者日常饮食注意营养搭配,食物多样化,参照《中国居民膳食指南(2016)》中的指导摄入量食用植物油,避免过量摄入。

■温馨提示

多种植物油应该换着吃

近年来,关于食用油的安全性传闻不断。除了此次棕榈油事件,2015年英国一份关于“玉米油或葵花籽油等植物油高温下会产生大量醛类化合物或致癌”的报道也曾轰动一时。该如何健康吃油呢?

广州医科大学肿瘤医院营养科副主任医师黄瑜芳介绍,世界卫生组织推荐合理膳食模式脂肪的供能比为20%~30%,不宜超过30%,其中饱和脂肪酸提供的能量应低于总能量的10%。最新版的《中国居民膳食指南》中建议的是每人每日25~30g的食用油,也就是两三白瓷勺的量。合理选择有利于健康的烹调方法,是减少烹调油的首选方法,建议以蒸、煮、炖、焖、熘、拌、急火快炒为主。

大豆油、花生油、菜籽油、玉米油、芝麻油、橄榄油等,由于脂肪酸构成不同,各具营养特点。比如,橄榄油、茶籽油的单不饱和脂肪酸含量较高,玉米油、葵花籽油则富含亚油酸。大豆油则富含两种必需脂肪酸——亚油酸和α—亚麻酸。这两种必需脂肪酸具有降低血脂、胆固醇及促进孕期胎儿大脑的生长发育的作用,此外,菜籽油,尤其是低芥酸菜籽油也富含单不饱和脂肪酸及亚油酸,还含有一定量的α—亚麻酸。

但富含多不饱和脂肪酸的大豆油、葵花籽油、玉米油等不适合用来进行高温煎炸,到冒油烟的温度(将近200℃甚至更高)会发生氧化聚合,分解出有毒物质。而适宜高温煎炸的猪油、牛油等动物油,因为饱和脂肪酸和胆固醇较多,对于已患高血脂、脂肪肝的人来说也不适合。富含饱和脂肪酸的棕榈油因为耐高温,稳定性好,一直被认为高温下产生的有害物质较少而用于很多食品加工,但从此次欧洲的研究报告显示,也可能存在一定风险。

专家建议,高温煎炸的烹调方式本身就不被提倡,此外,单一油种的脂肪酸构成不同,营养特点也不同,因此建议大家不要只吃一种油,经常更换烹调油的种类,食用多种植物油,更有利于健康。(记者 严慧芳 实习生 刘映彤)

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